Essays & Publications, Blog

Trump’s America: What Trump’s policies mean for the Black community and how we can hold his administration and ourselves accountable in the revitalization of Black communities

I wrote an article about Trump’s policies and proposed alternatives and solutions to problems Black Americans face in many of our communities. You can read the article by clicking the link below. Tell me what you think.

Trump’s America article

Essays & Publications

Brockden Brown: Criticism of American Society Through Fiction Writing

With Arthur Mervyn, or Memoirs of the Year 1793, Charles Brockden Brown gives America one of its first gothic novels, but that’s not all Brown gives us. Brown also gave us another look at America through fiction. Brown gives us a stark contrast between the good, opportunity-filled Philadelphia that Benjamin Franklin portrays in his Autobiography and the gritty not-so-good Philadelphia where you never know people’s true intentions. Arthur Mervyn’s conflict of country versus city is really a conflict of good versus evil.

Both Benjamin Franklin and Arthur Mervyn arrived in Philadelphia poor and looking for work, having left their homes due to unfavorable reasons. Franklin, however, was fortunate in his apprenticeships at various print shops in Philly, even though he quit, unsatisfied with the jobs. Still, Franklin’s is a story of the ‘American Dream’: being recognized for hard work and taken under the governor’s wing to be set up for his own successful business. Mervyn’s story, however, takes a completely different path. Instead of being taken under the tutelage of an influential person, such as the governor, Mervyn is taken under the patronage of rich merchant, Mr. Welbeck, later to be revealed as a conman and thief and soon finds himself aiding in the burial of a dead body and escape of his benefactor.

In Mervyn, Brown uses the contrast between city and country to illustrate the difference between good and evil. Philadelphia is described to the reader as a city of pestilence and depravity in contrast with the country-side living of Chester County, where Arthur Mervyn was born to a Quaker family. The rural outskirts of Philadelphia, as a place where work was steady and the people innocent and unassuming draws a stark contrast to the grit of Philadelphia. The plague, the deception and lies are metaphors for the corruption—the evil that is the city. Mervyn’s weakened state due to the plague is a metaphor for his weakened soul after having been conned, stripped of his clothing and involved in the murder of a man—all while in Philadelphia. The naivety, the trust are metaphors for the country.

Early on in Mervyn, Dr. Stevens, who finds Arthur Mervyn in a sickly state says “He was unqualified, by his education, for any liberal profession. His poverty was likewise an insuperable impediment. He could afford to spend no time in the acquisition of a trade. He must labour, not for future emolument, but for immediate subsistence.” Clearly, Brown takes issue with the widespread notion that, in America, especially Philadelphia, it was easy to be a self-made man, as Ben Franklin had portrayed of himself. When you are poor, seeking employment and have no way to take care of yourself, your immediate need of eating comes first pursuing the American dream of being successful, learning a trade, oftentimes, falls to the wayside.

In Brown’s 1793 Philadelphia, people are manipulative, calculating and deceitful to those newly arriving to Philadelphia and trusting the wrong person can be dangerous and lead to sickness of the soul and body. The city’s infestation, its contagion was so strong that it spread to the country in the form of plague and in the form of deception. Mervyn, traveling to the city to find work is manipulated and conned. Brown is clearly criticizing the ‘land of opportunity’, showing that the opportunities that people take may come at another person’s peril.

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Essays & Publications

How “A Narrative of the Proceedings of the Black People, During the Late Awful Calamity in Philadelphia, in the Year 1793 and a Refutation of Some Censures” sets the table for many of the written documents during the civil rights era of the mid 1950’s and 1960’s

Reading “A Narrative of the Proceedings of the Black People, During the Late Awful Calamity in Philadelphia in the Year 1793 and a Refutation of Some Censures” was an incredible eye-opening experience into, not only the horrors of the Yellow Fever epidemic, but of the treatment of free Blacks in Philadelphia who helped the people of the city. The treatment of free Blacks after the Yellow Fever epidemic reminds me of the treatment of Blacks and narratives that arose from the civil rights movement, just after World War II. The “Refutation” is a faithful narrative in response to Mathew Carey’s “A Short Account of the Malignant Fever which Prevailed in Philadelphia, 1793”. “Refutation” sets the tone for narratives and documents by later African Americans who would find themselves suffering from the same defamation of character and lack of appreciation for their contributions to society. Yes…and now let’s see how.

In the summer of 1793 an epidemic of Yellow Fever took hold of Philadelphia. The Mayor of Philadelphia, Matthew Clarkson, called on free Blacks to assist those who were “distressed, perishing and neglected” because he believed Blacks to be immune to Yellow Fever. Absolom Jones and Richard Allen, two free Black men and leaders in the Black community volunteered and, under the instruction prominent doctor, Benjamin Rush, used Dr. Rush’s method of bleeding patients. Allen and Jones, along with many in the Black community were instrumental in the fighting of the disease and taking care of Philadelphians by nursing and taking care of the sick—by burying those who lost their lives to the disease.

What the Black community received in return was vilification, accused of taking advantage of the sick and dying, of theft, specifically accused by Mathew Carey in his “A Short Account of the Malignant Fever which Prevailed in Philadelphia, 1793”. Carey went so far as to say “The great demand for nurses, afforded an opportunity for imposition, which was eagerly seized by some of those who acted in that capacity, both coloured and white. They extorted two, three, four, and even five dollars a night for such attendance, as would have been well paid for, by a single dollar. Some of them were even detected in plundering the houses of the sick” and went on to describe several accounts of villainous behavior exhibited by ‘Negroes’. There was no praise for the brave actions of the Black community, the tremendous help they offered to the city of Philadelphia and her people—only mentioned the villainy of a few Blacks, but made it seem as if they were all wicked. For this reason, the “Refutation” needed to be published, to give voice to the hard working and give a more accurate account of Black people’s dealings with the people of Philadelphia during this tumultuous time. All Jones and Allen and the rest of the Black community wanted, was to be appreciated for the work they had done and to be treated fairly, not stereotyped for the acts of a few, even though, blacks were not the only ones committing those acts.

Sadly, this would not be the only time that the hard work and sacrifice of the Black community would be shunned in order to paint a more dark and grim and infamous depiction of Blacks. Thousands of African Americans signed up to enlist during World War II. They faced immense prejudice and segregation in the military regardless of their heroic efforts, fighting two wars: one war abroad, against the greatest racist the world had ever known, as well as at home, fighting for equal rights, equal treatment, and equal education from one of the greatest injustices to a people ever known in a nation that claimed to be the freest of the free. African Americans returned home to the country that they had fought for, bled for, continued to treat them with disdain, unequal in all facets.

Reading the heartbreaking account of Absalom Jones, Richard Allen and the African American community of Philadelphia, what they did for the city and how they were treated afterwards, “Refutations” allowed me to understand further the similarities between 1793 and the start of the Civil Rights Movement. Regardless of whether or not Philadelphia was a beacon of hope and freedom for Blacks, White people still viewed themselves as superior to Blacks. However, Blacks rose to the occasion and Whites had to rely heavily on the help and support of Blacks and showed that they were self-reliant and more than capable of taking care of themselves in addition to the rest of the city during the Yellow Fever outbreak. Similarly, during World War II, Blacks proved to be more than capable and resilient, having taken jobs not normally offered to them such as manufacturing and industry jobs in addition to proving themselves just as capable fighting in the war as Whites. Once again, the argument of Black inferiority was disproven.

In addition to  being a defense against false accusations attributed to their race, “The Narrative” was also a plea to accept Blacks as they were, human beings deserving of humane treatment and respect for their work, just as their white counterparts. Later documents demanding civil rights followed in the footsteps of Richard Allen and Absalom Jones, including W. E. B. Dubois’ sociological study, “The Philadelphia Negro” commissioned by the University of Pennsylvania. With Black Philadelphians being turned away for jobs in favor of more “trustworthy” and “lighter skinned” poor Irish and German immigrants, crime in Black Philadelphia’s lower class rose. Even though the increase in crime did not, however, reflect the Black crime rate relative to White crime rates in Philadelphia, they did reflect and influence White perceptions of the Black community. The negative perceptions persisted throughout history, through the Civil Rights Movement and, even with the progress America has made, to this very day.

Seeing that Blacks were just as capable as whites should have been a gateway to recognizing the equality of fellow human beings. Instead, it gave rise to the continued and increased inhumane treatment and systematic repression of Black people. “Refutations” then, can be seen as a stepping stone or a prelude to many of the Civil Rights Movement because Black people were asking for the same thing: acknowledgements of their contributions, respect for their humanity, and equal treatment.

“We have many unprovoked enemies, who begrudge us the liberty we enjoy, and are glad to hear of any compliant against our colour, be it just or unjust.” Just as Doris “Dorie” Miller, who was awarded the Navy Cross for bravery for firing upon Japanese aircraft during Pearl Harbor, received no outside recognition as his White counterparts did, neither did the Black men and women who aided in the treatment and care of victims of Yellow Fever epidemic of 1793.

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